Third-country nationals may be detained at a temporary holding facility whether they do not have a valid permit of stay or received an administrative expulsion order.
These centers were originally called CPT (centres for temporary stay) in the Turco-Napolitano Law, then renamed CIE (centres for identification and expulsion) with the Bossi-Fini Law in 2002 and finally indicated with the acronym CPR (Return Detention Centres) in the Minniti-Orlando of 2017.
Originally, the maximum duration of the administrative detention was of 30 days (art 12, Law Turco-Napolitano); the Law Bossi-Fini established that, where the identification procedures are particularly difficult, the detention of migrants can be extended, through judicial order, for other 30 days; in 2013, this period was extended to 90 days. Recently, Art 2 of the Security Decree extended the maximum period of detention to 180 days.
In Italy, nowadays, 6 CPR are active: Roma, Bari, Brindisi, Torino, Potenza and Caltanissetta. By the end of 2019, also the CPR in Gradisca d’Isonzo, Modena, Macomer, Oppido Mamertina and Montichiari should be activated.